About Geology

Srikakulam District

        The formation in Srikakulam District is commercially known as Srikakulam Blue. Mineralogically it consisting of Blue Transparent Quartz ,Feldspars , other Ferro-Magnesium minerals. Also occurs Leptynite/Porphyroblastic granite gneiss. It is half white to brown in colour. The Leptynite bands are present within the porphyritic charnokite. It is exposed at the ground level as sheet. This patches of soil cover are seen at places. The rock is essentially composed of milky white quartz and feldspar (feldspar> quartz). The rock is mostly leuco gneiss of both fine grained and medium grained variety. The former has less imprint opf gneissosity; whereas the later has prominent gneissosity. Small amounts of pinkish brown garnets, aligned along the foliation . Garnets range in size between 1 mm and 1 cm and are spherical and/ or of avoid shapes. Biotite flakes occur as thin stringers along the foliation (NE-SW & NNM-SSE) trend. Model percentage of biotite is relatively less when compared to other areas in this region. Sacharoidal texture is common. Very few joints are present an their intensity is limited. The rock is of ortho metamorphic origin. Joints trend WNW-ESE & NNE-SSW.

LIST OF VILLAGES OF GRANITE ACTIVITY IN SRIKAKULAM DISTRICT


1.Tekkali
2.Melisathiwada
3.Lingalavalasa
4.Madduvalasa
5.Kodu Kuligam
6.Bhyripuram
7.Neelayyavalasa
8.Kasturipadu
9.Jagannajavalasa
10.Ravivalasa
11.Gopivallabapuram
12.Pattupuram
13.Chalikam
14.Venkatapuram
14.Dheerghase

Vizianagaram District

        Quarrying for granite in Vizianagaram districts has gained momentum during the last few years. White& Green Granites that are available in these districts have recently been introduced into the market and demand for the same has rocked up considerably. They are sought after for use in wall paneling. These granites are associated with the Khondalite group of rocks and are basically quartzo-feldspathic gneisses with granites; the lith blue one is another variety of granite, i.e. hypersthene granulite of anorthosite .The white granite yields blocks of good size and can be cut into very thin slabs which are very light and can be used for wall paneling. Proximity of the prospects to Visakhapatnam Port makes them commercially viable.
LIST OF VILLAGES OF GRANITE ACTIVITY IN VIZIANAGARAM DISTRICT
1.Addavalasa
2.Koyyannapeta
3.Kolisa in Mentadam Mandal
4.Nelimarla
5.Saluru
6.Terlam

Vishakapatnam District

        The granite deposit commercially known as Mistic white is situated at Buddibanda / Urulova hill ranges located within the revenue limits of Jagannadhapuram village, Madugula mandal, Visakhapatnam district. The area is falling in Survey of India TOPO sheet No.65 K/13, (Scale 1 inch = 63360 or one inch to a mile). The area is located at a distance of 5 kms of Ravikamatham village to its south east and at 2.5 km away from Kavagunta village located to west of the deposit, 45 Kms from Anakapalli and 25 Kms from Madugula which is a mandal head quarter and 45 Kms from NH-5, and 45 Kms WNW of Visakhapatnam city. The deposit is exposed as a massive irregular shaped steep hillock with an height of about 75 mts from the ground level. The hill is locally known as Buddibanda / Urulova hill ranges. The other areas where granite deposits are occurring are Chintaluru and Jalampalli villages of V.Madugula mandal.
Rock type of the area :
        The Urulova hill and other granite occurring areas are forms part of the Eastern Ghat formations of Archaean age, where the leptynites (garnetiferous granite) occur as metamorphic product of the pre-existing iron rich quartzo-fedspathic sediments.
Geological set up of the area :
        The Urulova hill and other granite areas in Visakhapatnam district comprised of leptynites (garnetiferous feldspathic gneisses) and these are divided into two types of leptynites (i) creamy leptynites (ii) gray leptynites. They occur as parallel formations with a sharp transition zone at the contact. They are tending N 75 Deg West and dipping 45 Deg towards North East. The rock formation show impregnations of garnets of varied sizes, ranging from 0.1 cm to 1.0 cm. The garnets are aligned parallel to the banding / bedding plane, in the form of wavy streaks in the both type of leptynites. The dispersion of garnet crystals enhances the esthetic look. Besides this, the wavy banding of major minerals like quartz and feldspar are also an added attraction, which further enhance the beauty and esthetic look of the deposit. The banded nature of the formation is mainly due to the mineral lineation. As such it gives different appearance, if we cut the blocks in different directions. The creamy leptynites comprised of quartz, feldspar and Sillimanite. As such it is creamy white in colour with impregnations of garnet in the form of wavy streaks parallel to the gneissic structure of the rock. The gray leptynites are similar to creamy leptynites in the mineralogical composition with an addition of biotite and magnetite, which are responsible for dark gray to gray colour.
Occurrence of Granite at Budibanda village,Ravikamatham Mandal,(Anakapalli),Visakapatnam District
Location :
        The Granite deposit commercially known as Mistic white is situated at Buddibanda hill ranges located within the revenue limits of Buddibanda village, Ravikamatham mandal, Visakhapatnam district. The area is falling in Survey of India TOPO sheet No.65 K/13, (Scale 1 inch = 63360 or one inch to a mile). The area is located at a distance of 5 kms of Ravikamatham village to its south east and at 2.5 km away from Kavagunta village located to west of the deposit, 45 Kms from Anakapalli and 25 Kms from Madugula which is a mandal head quarter and 45 Kms from NH-5, and 45 Kms WNW of Visakhapatnam city. The deposit is exposed as a massive irregular shaped steep hillock with an height of about 2 mts from the ground level. The hill is locally known as Buddibanda hill ranges.

Guntur District

        The Guntur District covers a total area of 11,391 Sq.Km which is bounded by 15° 18′ and 16° 50′ of the Northern latitude and 70° 10′ and 80°55′ of the Eastern longitudes. The District is endowed with vast and varied minerals and rocks. The Geological formation range in Age from Archean to recent. The occurrences of Granite deposits are confined to Archean age and the rock formations are predominantly granites, gneisses, acid, intermediate, basic charnockites.

        The Guntur district is abundant with variety of granite deposits and contributing significant revenue to the State Exchequer. These granites which are being exported to various countries either in raw or finished form. The granite areas are localised at few places covering the following Mandals in Guntur district.

a)Amaravathi and Thulluru Mandals:

        The Granite deposits in this area are hill terrains which are structurally trending NE-SW. Basically, the rock formations in this area are acid charnockites consisting of Blue Quartz, Feldspar, Hypersthene, Garnets and other mafic minerals. M/s. Yak Granite Inds., and M/s. Fujii Granites are operating the quarries in this area. These rocks are commercially marketed under the name of “Pacific Blue Granites” since their colour is blue after processing. At present, the quarrying operation are going on at Vaddamanu and Ananthavaram areas.
b)Atchampet and Krosuru Mandals:
        The Granite bearing areas are isolated and scattered deposits comprising of huge boulders and yielding sizeable block. The rock formations are Granites consisting Potash Feldspar, Quartz and Epidote, Chlorite etc., Due to presence of Potash Feldspar which is pink in colour and also epidote which is green in colour, the rock was commercially named as “Forest Green” or Carpet green. At present, the quarrying operations are going on at Krosuru, Velpuru areas.
c)Chilakaluripet Mandal:
        The Granite deposits in this area are small hillocks which are structurally trending NE-SW and yielding sizeable blocks. The rock formations are basic charnockites consisting of feldspar, hypersthene, garnet and other ferro magnesium minerals. These deposits are commercially named as “Black Pearl”. At present the quarrying operations are taking place at Yadavalli and Rajapet areas.
d)Vinukonda Mandal:
        The deposits in this area occurred as a small mounds covering limited extent. The rock formations are charnockites. The deposits are commercially named as Black Granite due to presence of mafic minerals. At present, the quarrying operations are taking place at Ummadivaram village.
e)Other Areas:
        There are still promising areas available for granite exploration in the Guntur District where the applications for grant of quarry leases have already received in Nadendla village and mandal, Repudi village of Phirangipuram mandal, Pamidimarru village of Narasaraopet mandal, Brugubanda of Sattenapalli mandal.

Prakasam District

        Prakasam district has come into prominence as a granite producing district in the State in recent years, thanks to the discovery of what is known as “Galaxy Granite” in the Chimakurthy area of the District; this unique type won international recognition. The granite bearing areas in the district can be divided geologically into parts, the southern part falling in the mica-schist belt and the northern part forming a part of the granite terrain (Statement-5).

        Black granite deposits around Chimakurthy basically are anorthosite gabbro pyroxenites which have intruded into biotite-hornblende scheme. The rocks are of black colour and medium grained and take good polish. Some places near Chimakurthy and R.L.Puram, the anorthosite gabro-pyroxenite has developed crystal of bronzite (a pyroxene which is golden yellow in colour). The golden yellow crystal stuffed sky, hence the name Galaxy granite. This variety is being quarried around Chimakurthy and R.L.Puram whereas the black gabboric-pyroxenite is being quarried near Budavada.

        Good deposits of coloured granites occur around Uppumangaluru and Kodidena. These are mainly hypers thene granites which form extensive hillocks; and these are being worked. Apart from this, syenites from Elchur are also being quarried as dimensional stones.
LIST OF VILLAGES OF GRANITE ACTIVITY IN PRAKASAM DISTRICT
1.Budavada                                       12.Zamalamadugu
2.Errakonda                                       13.Elchur
3.R.L.Puram                                       14.Muktheswaram
4.Somavarappadu                            15.Vaidena
5.Pallamalli                                        16.East Kunderu
6.Sivarampuram                                17.Gurjepalli
7.Rajampalle                                      18.Uppamagaluru
8.Choutapalem                                   19.Chanduluru
9.Lamkojipalem                                   20.Kodidena
10.Chavalvendra                                 21.Nagarajupalli
11.Venkatachelampalli                       22.Modepalli
GRANITE OCCURRENCES IN MARKAPUR – PRAKASAM DISTRICT
GRANITE OCCURRENCE:
        Geologically the area belongs to Dharwar Super Group and the associated intrusive of Archean age. Migmatites, Pyroxene-anorthosite-gabbro complexes and veins of quartz and pegmatites represent the region. Gabbro norite is emplaced in the granites. The subjected area falls on the Gabbro Norite body. The gabbro norite is mesocratic medium gray in colour and coarse grained consisting dominantly of plagioclase and hypersthene with subordinate quantity of augite. The rock shows intergranular texture.
Location:
1.Sankavaram (V), Kanigiri (M)
2.Machavaram (V), Kanigiri (M)
3.Venkatapuram (V), Darsi (M)
4.Rajampeta (V), Darsi (M)
5.Battupalli (V), P.C.Palli (M)

Chittoor District

         Chittoor District has become world famous because of the Granite Polishing Industry which was established at Kuppam four decades back. The latter has been supplying monuments to the world market since a long time. Chittoor was also the first District in the State where the quarrying for granite was taken up on commercial scale.

         Geologically, this district is covered by Peninsular Genissic Complex consisting of grey granitic gneisses, traversed by basic and ultra basic intrusives. The basic intrusives are mostly dolerites, though some dykes of gabbroic nature are also encountered.

         The dolerite dykes are extensively seen in Chandragiri, Chittoor, Puthuru, Bangarupalem, Changattupalli, Vyalpadu and Madanapalli areas. These dykes range in width varying from 3 to 100 metres and run discontinuously even upto a few kilometers. The prominent dykes of Gudipala, Kuppiganipalli, Basavapalli, Padumanda, Naragally etc. The other areas where black granite is exploited are Varathuru, Devalampet, Mandalapalli etc.

         Apart from black granite, grey granites are also being quarried in the district. In the area around Kuppam, the granitic gneisses are greenish in colour and are being marked under the trade name of “KUPPAM GREEN”. They are extensively quarried near Yamaganipalli, Nagaram, Yanadipalli, Rajanam etc. Apart from this, grey granites are being quarried and exported for use as kerb stones. Some of the multi coloured granites from this district are being marketed under the trade name of “English-teak”. This has a typical brown colour which has imparted as a good export potential to the rock.
LIST OF VILLAGES OF GRANITE ACTIVITY IN CHITTOOR DISTRICT

Ananthapur District

         Vast tracts of Ananthapur district are covered by coloured granite terrain which makes the district important in the context of dimensional stones. Closepet granite band, running in North West South – South East direction along the western border of the district is the major litho unit for the granite quarrying in the district.

         The multi-coloured granites and the patches of pink granites from the zone comprising prominent hillocks are being actively quarried in Madakasira, Kalyandurg and Rayadurg areas. The gneisses around Nassankota near Ramagiri are quarried as Grey Granites. Migmatitic pink granites are available in Uravakonda, Kamapadu near Vajrakarur and gooty areas. Apart from these, numerous dolerite dykes which crisscross the granitic country contribute to the black granite quarrying in the district. A large portion of the multi-coloured granite produced in the district is being exported through Mangalore Port.

LIST OF VILLAGES OF GRANITE ACTIVITY IN ANANTAPUR DISTRICT

I. RAYADURGA BLOCK

III. MADAKASIRA BLOCK

V. GOOTI BLOCK

1.Kondapuram
2.Rangansamudram
3.Gramadatla
4.Narinjagundlapalli
5.Mulakanur
6.Veerapuram
7.Bhagyanayakanchanakalli
8.Mallapuram
9.Mecari
10.Veparala
1.Yerrabommanahalli
2.Madakasira
3.Amidalagond
4.Mallinayakahalli
5.Amidalagondi
1.Kotheta

II. KALYANDURG BLOCK

IV.URAVAKONDA BLOCK

VI.OTHER VILLAGES

1.Varla
2.Kambadur
3.Dasarampalle
4.Pullur
5.Ramapuram
6.Kalyandurg
7.Hallikallu
8.Thimmasamudram
9.Thitakallu
1.Navaligi
2.Kamalapadu
3.Uravakonda
1.Nasankot
2.Jonnalakothapalli
3.Kutegulla
4.K.K.Agraharam
5.Jadarahalli
6.Haidarahalli
7.Boppepalli

Kurnool District

         Pink Granite available in Adoni area of Kurnool district have been in demand and are marketed under the trade name of “Adoni Red”. The western part of the district falling in the erstwhile taluks of Adoni, Aluru, Emmiganur, Pathikonda etc., is covered by the Peninsular granitic gneisses . Pink Granites of Adoni area are intrusive gneisses. These pink granites are extensively quarried near and around Adoni, Ballekallu, Doddanakiri, Rangapuram etc. The inter-mixing of pink granites and granitic gneisses has resulted in multi coloured granites which are quarried around Kollekollu, Manthrika, Kuppagallu etc. Apart from

LIST OF VILLAGES OF GRANITE ACTIVITY IN KURNOOL DISTRICT
1.Kotekallu                                     12.Peddakadabur
2.Kottagullu                                    13.Balekallu
3.Arkallu                                         14.Pandavagal
4.Kapati                                          15.Kuppagallu
5.Rangapuram                               16.Kosigi
6.Pesalabanda                               17.Krishnagiri
7.Manthriki
8.Doddanakari
9.Iswi
10.Navalakallu
11.Mykadone
Rock type of the area:
         The Buddibanda hill and other granite occurring areas are forms part of the Eastern Ghat formations of Archaean age, where the leptynites (garnetiferous granite) occur as metamorphic product of the pre-existing iron rich quartzo-fedspathic sediments.

Geological set up of the area:
         The Buddibanda hill and other granite areas in Visakhapatnam district comprised of leptynites (garnetiferous feldspathic gneisses) and these are divided into two types of leptynites (i) creamy leptynites (ii) gray leptynites. They occur as parallel formations with a sharp transition zone at the contact. They are tending N 75 Deg West and dipping 45 Deg towards North East. The rock formation show impregnations of garnets of varied sizes, ranging from 0.1 cm to 1.0 cm. The garnets are aligned parallel to the banding / bedding plane, in the form of wavy streaks in the both type of leptynites. The dispersion of garnet crystals enhances the esthetic look. Besides this, the wavy banding of major minerals like quartz and feldspar are also an added attraction, which further enhance the beauty and esthetic look of the deposit. The banded nature of the formation is mainly due to the mineral lineation. As such it gives different appearance, if we cut the blocks in different directions. The creamy leptynites comprised of quartz, feldspar and sillimanite. As such it is creamy white in colour with impregnations of garnet in the form of wavy streaks parallel to the gneissic structure of the rock.